Hello everyone. This is the last module. In this module, I summarize key points and speculate about the future of cannabis. So what are the key points that you're taking away from the series of modules and lectures? Well, hopefully, you'll be able to recall the risks as we know them. That acutely, THC can interfere with cognition, and driving ability. That long-term and frequent use of cannabis with high THC is known as down-regulate CB1 Receptors. That the risk of a cannabis use disorder is present about five percent for males in early 20s, rest for females, and that risk diminishes substantially with age. The another possible risks for young people is the association between frequent use of cannabis, THC, and psychosis, that's very serious. You should recall key points about the potential benefits of CBD, and THC, and cannabis more broadly. One important thing to recall is that we simply do not have enough evidence to make conclusive statements about many of the potential benefits. Having said that, there is substantial evidence to support the use of cannabis derived products with THC and CBD for chronic pain. There is moderate evidence for beneficial effects on sleep. There's growing evidence for the effects on anxiety, and Opioid Use Disorder. Well, there's now a lot of research in terms of the details with respect to the best ratio cannabanoids and dose. We can make some generalizations on how to reduce risks and maximize benefits. For example, I cannot think of any evidence to suggest that high doses of THC are beneficial, but there's a lot of evidence to suggest that lower doses are beneficial. With respect to CBD, I cannot think of a single study that suggests that a low dose of CBD like five or 10 milligrams, is effective for anything. In addition, there's not a single study out there that suggests CBD by itself is effective for pain. I'm not sure what little research we have suggests that lower levels of THC, combined with higher levels of CBD, is a reasonable starting point for people who want to avoid the risk and maximize the benefits. This leads me to another important point. In many ways, each person needs to figure out what works for them in terms of the ratio of cannabanoids, and the dose. I'm also not sure that we'll ever change given the complexity of cannabinoids. It's highly unlikely there will ever be one ratio, one dose that works best for everybody. In many ways, this is exactly why cannabis is such a poor fit, for our Western approach to medicine. Our FTA and the medical establishment more broadly, are built around the notion that medicine should be precise. Drug should have a specific target and a known mechanism. Cannabis is a blend of cannabinoids and terpenes, and other active compounds, it's on the other end of the spectrum. Even if you isolate one cannabinoids like CBD, it's still messy, CBD has at least half a dozen hypothetical targets. When you isolate individual cannabinoids, you also risk losing the potentially beneficial effects of the interaction of the compounds present in the plant material. You should be aware that there are companies out there that are trying to apply to the Western model, the FTA model of drug development. But what's that going to be like? Is that when we want? Consider this, side of this has been on the market in Canada and Europe for a number of years. Patients can get it in Europe. As you know, it's a one-to-one THC to CBD drug that you spray in the back of your throat. It tastes vaguely like peppermint. It is the only version of cannabis medicine that you can get in Europe. What if you want something with less THC and more CBD? Well, you're out of luck, because only one version is approved and available. In a nutshell, this is the downside to the pharmaceutical model. It's unrealistic to think that one version will work well for everyone. It seems equally unrealistic, as you will see in this module, that many different versions would ever make it through the FTA. In many ways, the most useful approach for minimizing risk and maximizing benefits, is education of consumers and patients about cannabis, and education about how to find what works best for you, in terms of minimizing risks and maximizing benefits. Hopefully, that's a theme, it has been consistent and recurrent throughout the narrative arc of these modules. Now, on that note, this last module discusses the future of research, and present you with an opportunity to be involved in a research that may help you determine what works best for you, and at the same time, help others by sharing your experience. This effort is modeled after other season scientists approaches, than power non-scientists to more actively participate in the process of science and learning. For those of you who are planning to try cannabis product, this might be an opportunity to help yourself find something that works for you, and at the same time, helps someone else. In closing, let me say that I hope you have found the coursework and the modules to be interesting and helpful. Thank you again so much for taking the course and learning.