Hi. I'm Ashley Sproles, I'm a Postdoctoral Researcher at UC San Diego's California Center for Algae Biotechnology. Today, I'm just going to be giving you a brief overview of common products that are derived from algae. So algae are very efficient primary producers. These energy from sunlight and other organic materials to produce high levels of macro nutrients. Some algae are up to 50 percent protein include all of life essential amino acids. They also synthesize high amounts of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates and other lipids that can be of high value to humans. We can extract and incorporate these products in to many commercial and industrial products. Sourcing these components from algae is actually much more sustainable and environmentally friendly than alternative sources, as it uses much less water and land than all agricultural sources. So the need for sustainable solutions today is causing a high demand for algae products in the market. The market is growing so rapidly, that is expected to reach about $45 billion by the year 2023 and has applications ranging from food, health and biofuels and aqua culture. So you can see from this table that the market is currently dominated by two algae species. The first is a blue-green algae called spirulina, which is pictured on the left-hand side and the second is a green algae called chlorella, which is pictured on the right hand side. Over 5,000 tons of algae biomass are produced annually just from these two species and they are incorporated into products you use or come in contact with every day. Additional biomass is generated from other algae species and more strains are in constant development. Algae are highly nutritious, therefore they make ideal nutritional supplements. They produce high amounts of protein as well as some other important vitamins and minerals. They can be eaten as tablets, capsules and powders that can be added to different smoothies and foods. In addition to whole algae, algae extracts are also used as health supplements. One of these is chlorella growth factor. Chlorella growth factor is used naturally by algae while it multiplies during photosynthesis, but is said to have immune inducing an anti-aging effects when taken regularly by humans. Additionally, algae are high in omega-3 fatty acids, such as EPA and DHA. Therefore, they can be used as an alternative to fish oil supplements. Because algae are so nutritious, they're considered a super food and can be found in many health food products. You can find them in things such as noodles, juices, baked goods and even veggie burgers. Polysaccharide extracts called agar and carrageena are also added to ice cream, puddings and sauces to use as thickeners. Algae pigments are also used as a source of natural food coloring because they range throughout the color spectrum. In addition to ingredients, there's also been a algae flower developed from chlorella that can be added to baked goods to increase protein or healthy fat content, as well as a cooking oil that is said to have a healthier fat profile than anything else on the market. In addition to food for humans, its also used as livestock and aquaculture feed and is found in some pet foods. The health benefits of algae extend to skin and hair. Therefore, they are commonly used in cosmetics as well. They are said to have anti-aging effects, such as chlorella, which stimulates collagen in the skin, which can help to reduce wrinkles. Many algae species also act as a UV screen and that can protect skin against sun damage. Additional compounds also help for skin cell turnover and skin tightening. The many vitamins and minerals that are found in algae are also said to have improve elasticity and toning for hair and skin. One extract from brown algae called alginate also helps to retain moisture and is therefore helpful in moisturizing creams. The same exact components that are used in food for thickening agents are also used in the cosmetics industry for thickening creams and gels and antimicrobial properties of some macroalgae seaweeds are used natural preservatives. Many algae species, including cyanobacterial, produce metabolites that are found to have antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity. Therefore, they're useful in pharmaceuticals. A range of other algae compounds are found to be used as therapeutics. For example, the algae pigment focuxanthin was found to lower blood glucose levels and therefore is being investigated as a therapeutic for diabetes. The neural protective effects of some compounds from spirulina and the macro-algae alba are also being investigated for their uses therapeutics for neurodegenerative disorders. Many album also have antioxidant effects, such as carotenoids, polyphenols, and phycobiliproteins. These help in protecting against free radicals in the skin that can cause cancer. Lastly, genetic engineering can be used to produce pharmaceuticals, which has been demonstrated in chlamydomonas for regenerating therapeutics for cancer and other important diseases. So the high lipid content and sugar found in algae makes it ideal as a feed stock for renewable fuels. Algae can be grown to large densities in open ponds and bioreactors such as those found on the right. Then it can be extracted for oils, which are further refined into biodiesel, gasoline and jet fuel. Algae can also be used for ethanol fuels by genetic engineering of green algae. They specifically design these algae to produce high starch levels that is then extracted and fermented into ethanol. This ethanol is then blended into regular gasoline at about a level of 10 percent which is similar to other biofuels. Additionally, macro-algae can be used to create butanol which is another form of alcohol fuels. The production of hydrogen and methane as a byproduct of photosynthesis is also causing algae to be investigated for biogas fuel. Algae can also be used in industrial applications to control pollution. Examples of this are in wastewater treatment, as well as a biofilter for fish ponds, as well as mitigating carbon dioxide emissions from power plants. Some oil extracts from blue-green algae can also be turned into polymers and create biodegradable foam. This has recently been demonstrated here at UCSD, where we created a algal derives surf board, which is pictured here. This same chemistry can be used to create biodegradable plastics, as well as potential uses in the future for making shoes. Lastly, algae can be used as an organic source of fertilizer in place of synthetic fertilizers in agricultural industry. Many of these algae products will be discussed further in future talks. Thank you.