Hello everyone, welcome to Big Data and Language. This week, we will learn about parts of speech. When I introduced the register in the previous lectures, I sometimes said nouns, adjectives, adverbs. So if you are not familiar with these terminologies, you might be curious about what those are. So let me explain the parts of speech one by one very detail in this week. So are you ready? Let's get started. So let's talk about what part of speech are. The parts of speech, words are classified into some categories according to their uses in a sentence. So it could be nouns, pronouns, or verbs, prepositions, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, or interjections. So there are eight categories, so let's look at one by one. The first one is nouns. Nouns are names for a person, animal, thing, place, idea, or activity. So for example, Jason, that's a person's name, and dog, it's a name of animal, and ball, that's the thing, and data, language, freedom, these are all the examples of nouns. There are not only just the general nouns, we have proper nouns as well. The proper nouns are nouns directly associated with entity or primarily used to refer to that entity. So for example, Jason, Seon-min, Seoul, Boston, Google, Facebook, Microsoft. These are for very specific person's name or very specific companies name, cities name. These are we call the proper nouns. The characteristic of proper nouns, usually, the first letter of the proper noun, we use capital letters. Not only the proper nouns, we have common nouns as well. They're used to name general items rather than specific ones. So it could be, there are so many examples of common nouns such as room, ball, data, pen, computer, cat, and dog. So if I have a pen, that's very common pen, we do not know the specific data. So there could be like pen A, pen B, pen C, pen D, and so they could be very common pen. So we call it common nouns. Not only common nouns, we also have abstract nouns as well. So these are the words that names things that are not concrete. So for example, quality, concept, idea, or maybe event. So for example, love. We cannot see love. That's abstract noun, and also freedom. We cannot see, it's not a concrete idea, it's an abstract concept. So that's why the freedom is abstract noun. Also another examples are skill, happiness, or life. What about compound nouns? Let's think about the meaning of compound. Compound means there are two things or three things put in together. So compound nouns means made up two or more words. So examples are swimming pool. Swimming, pool together, swimming pool or lap, top, laptop or mother-in-law, mother, in, law, so put in together. Another nouns you might want to know about are appositives. Appositives are nouns or noun phrases that rename another noun or a noun phrase. So they're helpful because they give a reader or speaker more information about the topic concisely. So let me give you an example. My friend Tina makes incredible chocolate fudge. So Tina is a noun after my friend. How many friends do you have? Maybe more than one. So we need more information. My friend who? So Tina. Tina gives more information. So there are many friends of mine, but this time, I want to mention one of my friend, her name is Tina. So my friend Tina makes incredible chocolate fudge. So the Tina is a necessary information because you may have more than one friend, but this time, it's just slightly similar, but the orders are different. Tina, my friend, makes incredible chocolate fudge. So this time Tina, we have a very specific person, proper noun. So in this case, my friend, this one is the extra information. So we call the extra appositives. So these are all about the features of nouns. Now, let's move to the pronouns. Pronoun is a professional or alternates name used by nouns. So for example, he, she, or it. These are all the pronouns. The pronouns, let's talk about the types of pronouns. The personal pronouns are I, me, mine, my, and you, your, he, him, his, she, her, we, our, us, they, them, their, it. Also, indefinite means are all any not specific. So all, any, anyone, both, each, either, everyone, few, many. Interrogative, which means question, asks questions, what, which, who, whom, or whose. Demonstrative means you point out something such as this, that, these, those. Reflect means to reflect something. So myself, yourself, himself, herself, themselves, ourselves. Relative means link the dependent clauses, so such as that, which, who, whoever, whom, whose. Those things are the examples and types of pronouns. So when we use the pronouns to show possession, pronouns behave like adjective and are called determiners. So for example, their cars. So in that case, their is used as the adjectives, so we call their as determiners because they modify the noun, car. So let me explain about other one as well, which one is antecedent, which means a noun before a pronoun that gives the pronoun it's meaning. So for example, the movie is interesting. It is an action film. So what is it? It is the movie. So the movie, pronoun, it means movie, that's why movie is antecedent. This book has many words that I do not know. So relative pronoun that means words. So if you have pronoun, then we have the concept you might want to or you need to understand the concept of antecedent as well. Let's look at the relative pronouns more. So if you use who, then who is talking about people. So for example, people who speak several languages are valuable employees. So this who speak several languages means the people, showing the people and modify the people. Also, we can use that for animals, things, or any informal language, we can use as a people. So let me give you an example. Yesterday, I received an e-mail that I did not understand. So that I did not understand, that modifies an e-mail. Also, Tom is the one that ran in the marathon. So that ran in the marathon modify the one. What about which. We use the relative pronoun which when we went to refer to animals or things. So for example, my new cell phone which I just got yesterday, stopped working today. So which I just got yesterday modifies my new cell phone. What about whom? We can use whom also talking about people, but in this time, the relative clause were used as object. For example, the people whom I saw were from Thailand. So whom I saw, I saw the people. So I saw the people, that is included in another sentence, the people whom I saw, so that's why whom goes first and whom modify the people. So the people were from Thailand and I saw the people. So when you combine two sentences as one, then we can make the relative clause. So the full one sentence will be the people whom I saw were from Thailand. When can we use when, relative pronoun? Talking about time. So for example, I use my cell phone most on the days when I have to work late. So when I have to work late modify the days. That one's showing the certain time. What about where? Where shows the place. So places, if you want to say, for example, I am going back to the store where I bought my phone. So where I bought my phone, where, the place is the store. So in that case, we can use these relative pronouns for relative clauses. So today, we've talked about the characteristics of nouns. So we learn about common nouns, abstract nouns, and compound nouns, and also pronouns, all the different types of nouns. So nouns, we have so many different types here. Next time, we will learn about another part of speech, so please pay attention to the next lecture as well. Thank you for your listening.