[MUSIC] In this module we discuss the types of accommodations, that may be necessary for students with disabilities to participate and achieve in a college-level curriculum. Decisions about accommodations are made when the student self identifies to disability services, and a review of records is completed. The student participates in these decisions, but recommendations for accommodations are determined by disability services on most campuses. It is important to note that not all disabilities are visible. The only way a faculty member can identify a student with disabilities is if the student discloses this information to him or her. Or if disability services does so by sending a recommendation for accommodations. The degree to which accommodations are needed is not for the faculty member to decide. It is the law in most places that reasonable accommodations must be made for students requiring them for full participation in college life. A 2009 study by the National Center for Educational Statistics uncovered the following about students with disabilities in higher education. 31% of students reported a learning disability, 18% had attention deficit or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. 15% had a mental illness or psychological, or psychiatric disability. 7% have a mobility or orthopedic impairment. 4% had a hearing impairment, and the remainder had another or undisclosed type of disability. Students with a range of disabilities attend universities across the world. It is not important that you are able to identify the disability. It is important to know what to do, if a student with a disability enrolls in your course and needs accommodations. Familiarize yourself with University policies regarding students with disability. Get to know what services are available for students, and what your responsibilities are towards students with disabilities. Be aware that one size does not fit all when it comes to accommodations. Each student will present with his or her own set of needs. Accommodations are specific to individual students. One student with a learning disorder may have very different needs from another student with a learning disorder. For example one student may need extra time on a written exam and another may need a separate room with no distractions to take an exam. As much as possible, work to make your course accessible to all students. As faculty or staff, you are an integral part in assisting your institution to comply with federal and international laws. When asked to make accommodations, do so with acceptance instead of resistance. If you require more information about recommended accommodations, ask the staff of disability services for their advice. You can set the tone for your students by being welcoming and open to students with disabilities. Be a model for debunking stereotypes by encouraging full participation by all students. The following terms are commonly referenced when talking about students with disabilities. Learning disabilities are documented disabilities that may affect reading, processing information, remembering, calculating and spatial abilities. Examples of learning disabilities are Dyslexia, a disability that affects reading, or Dysgraphia, a disability that affects hand writing and fine motor skills. Attention Deficit or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder are disabilities that may affect concentration, activity level or impulsive behavior. Mental illness includes mental health and psychiatric disorders that affect daily living. Mental impairments may include traumatic brain injury which may be temporary or permanent, Bipolar disorder or Schizophrenia. Mobility impairments may make walking, sitting, bending, carrying, or using fingers, hands or arms difficult or impossible. Mobility impairments may be a result of a spinal cord injury, birth defect, or a neurological disorder, and may require an individual to use a wheelchair or prosthetic device. Hearing impairments may make it difficult or impossible to hear or understand speech, access multimedia materials, and participate in discussions. Blindness or low vision refers to students who either have no functional vision or have some usable vision, but cannot read standard-size text. Health impairments affect daily living and involve the lungs, kidneys, heart, liver, immune systems and other body parts. For example, cancer, kidney failure, or AIDS. Accommodations for students with a variety of disabilities include note takers or recorded class sessions, captioned films, extra exam time, alternative testing arrangements, visual, oral, and tactile instructional demonstrations, computer with speech output, accessible classrooms and labs, and adjustable tables and lab equipment located within reach. Class assignments may also be made available in electronic format. Also, a computer with specialized input such as speech, or an alternative keyboard. A sign language interpreter, real time captioning, FM system, open or close captioned films, preferential seating, electronic or braille books or notes, computers with screen readers talking equipment, large print handouts, a computer equipped to enlarge screen characters and images, flexible attendance requirements and extra exam time, and assignments in electronic format. To hear about testing accommodations specifically, please watch the video presented by the director of the University of Pittsburgh Testing Center.