Welcome to Module 2 of the Foundations of Healthcare Systems Engineering from the Johns Hopkins Whiting School of Engineering. In Module 2, we will talk about system types. In the second module, we will talk about different system types, which you learned in the first module were healthcare drivers. In the context of what is healthcare? What's a healthcare system? And then what are healthcare delivery methods? And what you'll find when we talk about system types, that each one of those healthcare delivery methods fit in some context of a healthcare system, which is an important step to build. So when we get to Module 3, and I actually talk about systems engineering in the context of healthcare, you will have a better sense of how this all comes together. During this module, we'll talk about three specific types of systems, complex systems, systems of systems, and enterprise systems. What you'll see is that complex systems manifest themselves in some complex single unit, where systems of systems are really a collection of complex systems, or that are brought together for some common good. And then eventually, we will talk about enterprise systems, where what you'll see is that you're bringing together these individual complex system in the context of a system of system that now has personnel and processes to bring it all together. The first type of system that we'll look at is a complex system. From the Kossiakoff's systems engineering book, you see that a set of interrelated components working together towards some common objective defines a complex system. As an example, looking at a ventilator system, a ventilator system has motors, screens, tubing, infrastructure. And all these pieces work together for some common objective. In this case, they help people breathe, and there's a specific person for them. But individually, these elements are brought together to come towards some common objective. Each individual part by itself doesn't do any good. They must be brought together to have some common objective to make a complex system. Looking at the attributes of a complex system, what you'll find first it is a single Integrated system. Not multiple systems, a single system, such as a single ventilator system here. Also, it has a single acquisition authority. What that normally means is someone at one company, one sponsor is looking to purchase the singular unit. It's not multiple people. It's not multiple vendors. It is usually a single vendor that puts something like this together. And then also, within a set of scope, it's going to solve a certain type of problem. So a ventilator is geared to help people breathe. But potentially, you might have a ventilator that works in an ICU. You might have a ventilator that works in someone's home. So they can have different configurations, but they're geared to solve a certain problem set. Some of the challenges associated with a complex system range from the end user, and the utility of the complex system, as well as the design into the development of a complex system. A few things that you can look at for challenges are number one, a single complex system doesn't address every single neat that's out there. So don't look to try to build a system that addresses all the needs out there. In this case, the ventilator system, they're going to be scoped. They're going to be for a specific purpose, and they can't be geared to meet every need. Also, the requirements that are out there, you can't meet them all simultaneously. So how do you bring together a balanced scope for design? As you're designing things, as you put things through a process, which you'll learn in the next module is system engineering process, there are several phases that a complex system must go through, in order to achieve end product. And that is not an easy thing to do. When you start building a complex systems, there are risks associated with it. And those risks can be budgetary, technical, schedule, and they may be risk to the end users themselves. As you're going in, you're building complex systems also within your organization. There may be competition for resources, in order to build that complex system. So as you are one that may be building them, be aware of that. And then as you're building these things, know that there are design parameters that the engineer can work on. But there's also areas outside that engineer's view that impact the design, and where you go with the system. And also, as you're going forward with the design of a complex system, there are challenges that you may not expect. And it's the job of the healthcare system engineer to seek out those challenges and those problems to solve them to reduce risk for the design, as well as the implementation.