Good morning, everyone. Augustus founded the Julio-Claudian dynasty. The name says it all. Julio-Claudian. "Julio" for the Julian side of the family, Julius Caesar and Augustus. The "Claudio-", the, "Claudian" for the Claudian side of the family. That was Augustus's wife's from, from a, for, Augustus's wife, from, for her, her side of the family, excuse me. The Claudian side of the family. And there were four emperors, in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. These were Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. Every one of them, all four, made an important contribution to the evolution of Roman architecture. And we'll talk about the contributions of those four today. But we'll also see that the single most important contribution from the standpoint of Roman architecture was by Nero. The notorious Emperor Nero. Which is why I do call this lecture Notor, Notorious Nero and His Amazing Architectural Legacy. An architectural legacy that would have been impossible without some of the earlier concrete constructions that we've already discussed. Specifically, the frigidaria of Pompeii and also the thermal bath at Baia, which I remind you of here. The so-called Temple of Mercury. We see it again with its dome made out of concrete construction. A view from the exterior and, down here at the left, a view of the interior of the monument. And I remind you of the way in which that is designed, so that light streams through the oculus in the dome down onto the sides of the wall creating light effects, a circle, that, that corresponds to the shape of the opening above and then falling initially on the pool of water that would have been located there, as well as across the walls which probably would have been, that were certainly stuccoed over and probably would have been covered with mosaic. So a very spectacular interior, indeed, and one, again, that had an important impact, as we'll see, on the architectural designs of the Roman emperor Nero. I want to begin, though, with the first of the Julio-Claudian emperors and that is with Tiberius. And you see a portrait of Tiberius now on the screen, just to give you a sense of what he looked like. Tiberius, again, the son of Livia by a former marriage. The elder son of Livia by a former marriage, who becomes emperor of Rome right after Augustus, and the portrait that you see here is a marble portrait of Tiberius that is now in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek in Copenhagen. Tiberius was Emperor of Rome from 14 to 37 AD. And, with regard to architecture, he completed projects begun by Augustus. He also was responsible for restoring Republican buildings that had fallen into severe disrepair by his reign and this included several temples, a basilica, warehouses, and also a theater. Tiberius also initiated some new building projects in Rome. These included a temple to the divine Augustus, temple to, Deus Augustus, his divine adoptive father, because Augustus was made a god, as Caesar had been before him, at his death. Tiberius also put up a series of arches to his relatives and also a camp for the Praetorian Guard. But what we'll see about Tiberius is that his real passion was not the public architecture that Augustus had been so fond of, think the Forum of Augustus and the Temple of Mars Ultor, or the Ara Pacis Augustae, which were among, Augustus's most important building projects. Tiberius was interested, instead, in private architecture, architecture in a sense for himself and his nearest and dearest, and he began a palace on the Palatine Hill. He did not think the small, modest house of Augustus, despite the fact that it had those nicely painted walls, he did not think that that befit his own grandeur. And he began a major palace on the Palatine Hill, on the northwest side of the Palatine Hill. And he renovated and built villas elsewhere, outside of Rome, especially on the spectacular island of Capri. And, indeed, during the reign of Augustus, and also the reign of Tiberius, that family, the Augustan and Julio-Claudian family, built 12 villas, count them, 12 villas, on the island of Capri, one more spectacular than the next. It's worth mentioning, by the way, that Augstus's tastes, even in villas, was somewhat more modest than Tiberius. Augustus used to decorate his villa, we are told, with dinosaur bones and things like that, of historical interest. Whereas Tiberias spared no expense in, in, introducing every luxury possible into his villas. With regard to the, palace on the Palatine Hill, the so-called Domus Tiberiana, I just want to mention it in passing, there's very little, that survives of the substructures that Tiberius was responsible for beginning, for that palace. They were made out of concrete construction, and you can see here what's called the Clivus Palatinus, which is a rampway leading from the Roman Forum up to the Palatine Hill, and you can see some of the remains of those substructures over here. The ones that we see were probably restored later and may or may not date to the Tiberian period, but they give you some idea of the sort of construction that he began on the Palatine Hill. And I mention this just because we'll see that Caligula and some of the other emperors continued to add to this palace. And then the entire Palatine Hill is redesigned by the Emperor Domitian in the late first century AD. Much more interesting and much more, and there's much more information for us to, to look at, are the villas on the island of Capri and I'm going to show you one, the best preserved, from that island, the so-called Villa Jovis. The Villa Jovis. The Villa of Jupiter, which is an interesting name when you think about it for a, a villa for the Emperor Tiberius. The Villa Jovis, which was put up, sometime in the years in which Tiberius was emperor. That is, from 14 to 37 AD. It's a spectacular place, beautifully, situated, and I'm going to take you there today. Now, the only way to get to the island of Capri, which, by the way, is one of my very favorite places in the world. I don't know how many of you've been there, but it's quite extraordinary. The island of Capri. You can't jet to the island of Capri. You have to arrive there by boat. And most people take a boat, unless they have a private yacht, but those of us who don't have to take a boat either from Naples, usually a hydrofoil, although they have larger boats as well, a hydrofoil from Naples or from Positano. And I actually show you, this is a view on the left-hand side of the screen of Positano on the Amalfi Coast. You go down to the beach. There's a place where you can pick up a hydrofoil. It takes a very short time, half an hour or so, less, a little bit less, to get over to the Island of Capri from Positano. So we're sitting on one of those hydrofoils, or at least eight of us are, because that's usually what they fit, and we're making our way from Positano toward Capri. As you go there, if the weather is good enough, and, if the, if the sea is calm enough, they will take you to see the famous grottoes. The Green Grotto and also the Blue Grotto. And again, I can just give you a little sense here of, in this view, of how blue is blue, I mean, it's really a neon blue when you go to see the Blue Grotto. It's a spectacular sight and a very special color blue that you really don't see anywhere else in the world. So they'll drive you around in the hydrofoil to see the grottoes, and then you eventually, get to the dock at Capri, and this is what you see as you as you get off, the boat at the Island of Capri, a very, again, very beautiful, spot to visit. As you go up, you make your way from the dock, up to the funicular. You take the funicular up to the main part of town. And one of the first things you see is the popular bar Tiberio. I show it to you, not to, it, I mean, it's a fun place to go, but I show it to you mainly because it's one of these examples of the way in which the Roman emperors have had a lasting impact even today. That so many of these bars and restaurants and so on are named for Rome's emperors or for some of the monuments that we've been studying in the course of this semester. And this bar is no exception. And, in fact, if you go, if you through the doors that lead into the interior of the bar, you will see a, a portrait of Tiberius etched on the doorway. So, Tiberius very much lives and thrives in the center of downtown Capri still today. But most tourists go to Capri to see, besides just to walk around a magnificent island and to test out some of the beaches which tend to be on the rocky side, is to see the most famous rocks of Capri and these are the so-called Faraglioni. You see them here. You go up to the so-called Gardens of Augustus. And then up to a spot, where you can see these particularly well. They're magnificent. They are like the landmark spot of the island of Capri. And they have survived coastal landslides and sea erosion to look as wonderful as they still do today. And this is, of course, the photo op on the island. I don't think there's anyone who visits Capri who doesn't take a photo or have a photo taken of themselves at the Faraglioni. The villa that I want to show you is, again, the best-preserved villa of Tiberia's on Capri. and, again, I mentioned that it's called the Villa Jovis and it dates to 14 to 37 AD. It's, it's a trek to get up there. you, you have to walk, essentially, the streets are such that there are no cabs or cars that can get you there. You have to, to make it on your own. And there are two paths. I've made the mistake of taking the more arduous path, which looks like this to get up to the top. But there are, there's another path, also, that takes you by some very attractive houses and villas, which are fun to see. And you will see the largest lemons. Has anyone ever been on the island of Capri? You'll see the largest lemons in, in, on Capri, as well as on the Amalfi Coast in general, that you've ever seen anywhere. Gigantic lemons on lemon trees as you make your way up to, the villa, the Villa Jovis. Now here is a plan of the Villa Jovis, as well as a cross section from the Ward Perkins textbook. And, if we look first at the cross section at the uppermost part of the screen, you will see the way this, this building was made. You will see that the architects have taken advantage of developments in concrete construction to create a series of barrel vaults in tiers. And those barrel vaults in tiers are where, are the cisterns of the villa, where the water was kept to supply the baths and the kitchen and so on of the villa. You see those there. And, in this plan down here, you can see the cisterns again, and the way in which a pavement has been placed on top of those tiers of barrel bolts to create a very large court here. The entrance way into Tiberius's villa on Capri was over here. You can see a series of columns, four in total that you see as you make your way into the entrance way of the villa. Along this side of the villa which is the southern side of the villa, you see the baths, not surprisingly placed on the southern side. Extensive bath structure for the emperor. On the western side, you see a series of rooms that are for the entourage of Tiberius. The kitchen is located on this side, as well. And then, perhaps the most important room of the house from our standpoint, the hall or the aula, aula, the aula of Tiberius's villa at Capri, and you can see the shape of that aula. It's a kind of hemicycle. With large picture windows that allow views that lie outside and it should remind you of the second phase of the villa of the mysteries in Pompeii, where we also saw that attractive bay window with the panoramic views out beyond. The panoramic views were much more spectacular here than even in from the Villa of the Mysteries, because as I think you can see also from this site plan that this is located right at the edge of a promontory. It's in fact 1,095 feet above sea level. And you get some incredible views of, of the sea and of other islands from this location. On this side, the northern side of the structure, is where the apartments of Tiberius were located, a series of rooms for the emperor himself and including also an imperial loggia where he could walk out and get some attractive panoramas privately on his own. You can also see that there is a corridor that leads from the private apartment to this very long walkway that is located right at the edge of the cliff on this side. This is called, technically, an ambulatio, ambulatio, an ambulatio. And it was just for that. If was for, for, for taking pleasant walks, getting nice views of the sea from there, especially for the emperor and special invited guests. And right in the center was a triclinium. You see it right here, a triclinium, or dining room, where the emperor could dine and could look out again over views that were possible from this particular locale. This is a, a view, unfortunately in black and white, but it's the only one that I have that gives you the sense of the remains today from above. The extent of those remains. And you can see again the concrete construction, I think quite well from this, as well as the fact that, although all the foundation walls are there, there's no decoration, the ceilings are all missing and so on and so forth. You see this cistern here, the location of the aula up here, the the area for the entourage of Tiberius and the private apartment. On that side, a church and a statue on a base were added later, and so, of course, you need to think those away. This is a view of some of the remains as they look today just to give you a sense that when you're actually up there and wandering around the walls don't go up all that far but you can also see that they, they do preserve the entire plan of the structure, which is why we have such a good idea of what it looked like in antiquity and how all of those pieces fit together. You can see that the construction is concrete and the facing is stone irregular stonework, the kind of opus incertum work that we've seen elsewhere in Campania because, remember, this is this is an island, but it is off the coast of Naples, Pompeii, and Oplontis. This is in that same general area of Italy. And this, this is one view and one, I have many more spectacular ones than this one, but this is one that gives you a sense of the sort of thing you can see. This one that I took right from, I think from near the from near the aula. Just to give you an idea of what you see from there. Beautiful views of the sea and some, some areas you can see the rocky outcroppings as you look down. And then views of some other islands in the area, for example, Ischia, and so on.