In the last section, I led everyone to learn the concept of disempower and empower, and to understand how does disempower happen, and how should we do to achieve empowerment. Then I led you to discuss the implementation of resettlement services, and the influence this service model might brought to youth rights from the point of disempower and empower. Also I led you to do some reflection, and to come up with some advises. In this section, I would like to bring you into the discussion about how to have a conversation with youths, or some communication skills. Then, I will lead you to take a look at the ways youths work in Taiwan, and two common work strategies which might be able to implement empowerment, including experiential education and outreach work patterns. Finally, I will show you some practices and experiences in pushing forward the outreach work in Taiwan. First of all, let's take a look at the communication skills needed for the conversation with youths. In the field of social work professional services, we always mention three major working methods, that are, casework, group work and community work. Casework is the common method that we usually adopt it to assist youths. While conducting casework, individual talk is used most often. Here I am not going to introduce you to get to familiar with every kind of talking theory of counseling, or any skills. This is a very difficult thing, and it is also a profession, which might need another course to lead you to know. Hope that I can take this opportunity to discuss with you some principles and directions, and discuss how we have a more appropriate talk with youths or use communication skills to resolve possible conflicts effectively by giving a very simple example. At the beginning of the talks with youths, I think it is important for you to pay attention to observation. Observe what? When a teenager comes to us, we can get a lot of basic information from him or her by observing this teenager. However, remember that the appearance you observe sometimes doesn't represent the thoughts deep in the child's heart. Our appearance may block ourselves from our understanding of him. Because people who first meet others are more uncertain up to what degree should them open themselves up to let others to accept them. So when I'm leading you to do observation, I can remind you of some tips. Usually when a teenager first comes to a stranger, or other adults, he or she attends to adopt the defense mechanism to protect itself. Therefore, while having a talk with a teenager, even if we have doubts about what he or she says, which means we don't seem to believe what he or she said, or even think that this teenager is lying, and inconsistent inside and outside. We should accept everything he has shown to us, and we must never ever show the face, "Is that so?" This represents your suspicion about what he or she said, which is the most taboo thing in the building of communication relationship. Once you ask him, "Is that so?", meaning you don't trust him. If you don't believe him, it is impossible to continue the conversation between you two. In addition, we must try to talk to him by using their own language and their point of view. In other words, we adults should avoid the way adults talk to children, to talk with youths. Well, if so, what are we going to observe? Let me give you some points for observation. The simplest first, of course, is the appearance. What is this appearance? It is the overall appearance. The general appearance reveals the ego an individual would like to show. How he wants to be treated shows his inner self-identity. But as I just said earlier, do not over-interpret based on his wearing, hairstyles, tattoos, external appearance. We must have some prejudice, so while doing the observation, we look at him, think about him, but never evaluate him. In addition to looking at the overall appearance, the second thing we can observe is his behaviors. From the characterization of behavior, we, a person who help others, can decide how to interact with him. For example, we should not be silent to a child who is more able to speak and has more words. Because if we remain silent, the child would thought if he has too many words. We should actively engage in dialogue with him. From the performance of behaviors, we can also figure out what behaviors the teenagers might need to change. In addition to observing the overall behavior, then we carefully observe the internal and external emotional expressions, What is the inner emotion? Inner emotion is hard to see, And at many times, a youth's inner emotion may be hidden by the external emotional behaviors, we may not be able to see it immediately. For example, in Taiwan, some youths were caught to the police station, The news media's report was very simple, these children arrived at the police station in ridicule, Not afraid of the police system at all. Apparently, they just do not matter, Obviously, they do not care. They are shameless. I have talked to these children, and I asked them "Aren't you afraid when you was brought to the police station?". They told me directly that they are afraid of it. And I asked, "Since you are afraid, why don't you seem to be afraid of it at all?" They also told me directly, "Or should I cry in front of the police? Won't they arrest me because I'm crying?" It's a simple expression. They used laugh to hide their fear. They don't want to show their weakness. They don't want to let the police know that they beg them. Isn't it consistent with our understanding of youth? In this process, we saw a child, and we said that he/she is shameless. However, they were nervous and afraid. Take the child facing the death of his/her parents for example. Some people might say, "How can the children behave that they do not care?" Even some children show their anger. "How can you be angry when your parents are dead?" In my experience of contact with these children, some children told me that he was very sad and sorrowful. But when he saw everyone like that, actually he want to be strong. However, people think that he is not weak or sad enough. Therefore, when we look at the emotional representation, we must be careful. What they behave does not represents their inner feelings. What should we do? Talk to him. How do I know his inner tension, his inner sadness? Because I talked to them, they told me what they really thought. Well, when it comes to "talk", that's language. What is language? We talk everyday and all the time, but do we talk in a right way? How should we say? In the relationship of helping people, we cannot say nonsense. So we must pay attention to what we say, how we say, and the language we use. Okay, what is the talk content? Content means idea. Content is cognition and the ability of abstract thinking. We decide the strategy by the content to fit the child's level. When his level of cognition is not high, he can not understand the content if we use profound language. Sometimes what the child says is jumping, his concept does not link together. But the jumping thought represents their confusion. It is also important that how we should accompany them and help them to clarify their thought. The language we used is important. When talking about youths' subculture, I also mentioned that language was an obvious representation of subculture. Therefore, we must use language to assess the child's ability of expression, And the language content he uses in the subculture. Beside observation, remember what I just said, the external observation, Observation, in addition to seeing, there is one more thing called hearing, active listening, listening is very easy, You say and I listen to. This often happen. But how to be active, the so-called active The so-called active means we should give feedbacks with empathy, and encourage teens to continue to share his personal opinions. So listening actively means non-language response. When a person talk to you You should look at him, and you should smile. Nod timely, and express your body language appropriately. It is also the encourage words. For example, you may not reply to him when he talk to you. But you have to express "hmm, well, I see" in the conversation. Use such a way to respond to him you hear that. Because hearing, there is no way to perform it. You are listening, but your ears won't move. You have to respond what you heard to the other in a simpler language. Have you ever found that in our lives, when we talk to some people, you will tell him, "Are you listening?" Why do you think he is not listening? Is that because his vision drifting around? Or is that because he is giving you cold shoulder? Right, usually when we think they are not listening, it's their expression made us feel that they were careless. Think about it, if a teen actively talks to you and shares with you. But you do not respond to him actively for you have heard. Then how can we conduct the talks with him? Of course, in the so-called active listening, the most taboo, the last thing you can do, is the judgmental, or suspicious words. What does that mean? When a child told you something, and you asked him, "Is it true?" Is that right? What does this mean? This means that, you don't believe him, right? So if such reaction occurs, think about it, When you tell someone a thing, and he responds you, "Is it true? Is it right?" Do you still want to talk to him? So, in active listening, you can never so this! Next, the skill I want to share with everyone is, accepting and amplified responses. Accepting and amplified responses, in fact, are important parts of active listening. Because you are giving him feedback, You have to tell him that, I heard what you had said, I respond to you, understand if my understanding is right, Such method is more important to youths. Because the youths will think that, I can have conversation with you only if you listen to me and respond to my words. After accepting and amplifying the response, we also have to respond to his content and feelings. Especially the feeling part, the language represents the mood, Represents the idea, we have to choose the most important part, and give him feedback in our language, you can also give back his emotions. For example, you sound to be very angry about this thing, Even if the child or youth didn't use the word "angry" in the conversations, you can reply him like this in the mood, this is also an active listening expression. If we got it wrong, he also has a chance to clarify. Act in concert with the youth language, I have just used. In the feedback, remember to use his language, and you can make good use of some metaphors, and the events, cultures, experiences that they are familiar with, to respond to him. In addition to observing and actively listening to the content of language, we also have to provide some feedback, such as praise, affirmation, cheer and acclaim, you are doing well, is a sure, normalized treatment. When a youth is very dissatisfied with himself and feel how bad he is, let him know that many people are so, not only him is like this. Next, is re-framing. What is the concept? Re-framing, enables youths to expand their ideological boundaries. For example, some youths complain to me that their parents are not fair, they have to do everything while their younger brothers need to do nothing. We often hear such an argument, What is the re-framing? When a youth comes to you and complain such a thing to you, you can help him to think, "Maybe your parents think that you are maturer, your ability to do things is better, and more trust you can do these things well. But they don't have such confidence in your brother, so they hope you can accomplish these things." So, re-framing makes an experience which seems to be negative, through our different interpretations, leading teens to think the positive meaning behind. The last technology is self-disclosure, is to share our past experience. In other service, especially adults, one may learn that professionals can not disclose their past experience. But in the field of teens, self-disclosure is an acceptable technology. Because when a teenager feels that, wow, this adult is still a human. You are quite sincere. Originally, You have similar experiences in the past. More importantly, after seeing your experience of walking through the past, he may feels that the future is more hopeful. Only when you disclose yourself, remember and do not forget that you are a helper, and the teenager is the protagonist. Don't let it turn out that the teenager is listening to your story. So expose to a certain extent, turn the protagonist back to him. Let him continue to express what he wants to say. Well, finished these technologies, please try to recall Which of the following is not included in the basic skills when talking to a teenager?